On this day...
In 1745, Jonathan Swift, Anglo-Irish poet, wit and satirist, died. So it goes. Best known for his masterpiece "Gulliver's Travels."
In 1765, the "Stamp Act Congress" met and drew up a declaration of rights and liberties.
In 1781, Lord Cornwallis surrendered to General Washington at Yorktown in Virginia at 2:00 P.M., signalling the end of the American War of independence.
In 1790, 400 troops attack 150 indians northwest of Ohio-First battle fought by U.S. troops.
In 1807, discovery of sodium announced by Sir Humphrey Davy.
In 1812, Napoleon's retreat from Moscow begins.
In 1845, Wagner's opera Tannhäuser performed for the first time.
In 1864, [Civil War] Battle of Cedar Creek
Union General Philip Sheridan averts a near disaster in the Shenandoah Valley when he rallies his troops after a surprise attack by Confederate General Jubal Early and scores a major victory that almost destroys Early’s army at the Battle of Cedar Creek in Virginia.
Through the summer of 1864, Early moved his army with impunity around the Shenandoah and its surrounding area. Union General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant dispatched Sheridan to take care of Early’s army, which was distracting Grant and preventing him from applying the full pressure of the Union armyagainst the forces of Robert E. Lee around Petersburg, Virginia. Sheridan performed his task well, defeating Early at Winchester, Fischer’s Hill, and Tom’s Brook. By mid-October, Sheridan’s troops were busy destroying the rich harvest of the Shenandoah to deny food supplies to Lee’s army.
Sheridan departed for a military conference in Washington, D.C., and before he returned, Early launched a devastating attack on the surprised Yankees at Cedar Creek. Throughout the morning of October 19, the Rebels drove the Union troops back more than three miles. By late morning, Early slowed the attack despite the urgings of General John B. Gordon, who insisted that Early press his assault to achieve total destruction of the Federal force. Returning from Washington, Sheridan heard the battle from Winchester and began a furious, 12-mile ride to the front. Along the way, he methis retreating soldiers and turned them back toward the battle for a counterattack. This effort, which was later called Sheridan’s Ride, became legendary.
After Early cut offhis assault, an eerie silence settled on the battlefield. Sheridan orchestrated his counterattack by late afternoon, and it was devastating. The Yankees tore through the Confederate lines and sent Early’s army in retreat. Sheridan lost 5,500 out of 31,000 troops. Early lost almost 3,000 of the 22,000 men in his command, but nearly all of the Confederate artillery was captured in the Union counterattack. It was the last major battle in the Shenandoah campaign, and Early was never able to mount a serious offensive again.
In 1872, 472 pound lump of reef gold, the Holtermann Nugget, discovered in New South Wales, Australia.
In 1915, the U.S. recognized General Venustiano Carranza as the president of Mexico. The U.S. then imposed an embargo on all parts of Mexico where Carranza was not in control.
In 1916, Victoria Cross holder, Leo Clarke died. So it goes.
In 1937, Woman's Day magazine was published for the first time.
Leo Clarke, VC (December 1, 1892 – October 19, 1916) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The main assault of the Battle of Flers-Courcelette was scheduled for September 15, 1916. Its objective was to occupy a chain of trenches between Martinpuich and Courcelette. On September 1, 1916, Clarke's battalion was charged with capturing a 50-yard-long salient between the Canadian position at Mouquet Farm and Courcelette to the north.
On September 9, 1916, near Pozieres, France, the first three companies of Clarke's battalion went over the top, leaving the fourth in reserve. Clarke, an Acting Corporal at the time, was assigned to take a section to clear the enemy on the left flank to allow his company sergeant to build a fortified dugout that would secure the Canadian position once the salient was overrun. When his section reached the trench, it was so heavily defended that they had to battle their way through with hand grenades, bayonets and their rifles as clubs. Clarke was the only man left standing; the rest had either been killed or wounded.
At that time, about 20 Germans, including two officers, counter-attacked. Clarke advanced, emptying his revolver into them. He then picked up two enemy rifles and fired those too. One of the officers attacked with a bayonet, wounding Clarke in the leg, but Clarke shot him dead. The Germans retreated, but Clarke pursued, shooting four more and capturing a fifth. In all, Clarke killed 19 of the enemy, capturing one.
...Clarke's battalion was ordered forward to secure the newly captured Regina Trench which was still under heavy enemy artillery fire. Clarke was crouching in a hole at the rear of a trench when a shell exploded and the back of the trench caved in, burying him. His brother dug him out, but Clarke was paralyzed; the weight of the earth had crushed his back and injured his spine. Clarke was taken to No. 1 General Hospital, but died on October 19. He is buried in Plot II, Row C, Grave 3A, in Etretat Churchyard, 16 miles north of Le Havre, France. According to a contemporary newspaper article, shortly before his death he wrote his parents, stating: "I don't care so much for the V.C. as getting home for a couple of months."
Excerpted from Wikipedia, the FREE Internet encyclopedia.
In 1949, No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: "That Lucky Old Sun," Frankie Laine. [That lucky old sun ain't got nothing to do but, roll around heaven all day.]
That Lucky Old Sun - Frankie Laine
|World At War
THE GREAT BATTLES OF WORLD WAR II
World War II, which had begun in Europe on September 1, 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, ended six years later to the day, September 1, 1945. The final concluding ceremony came the following day, September 2, 1945, with the signing of surrender papers by representatives of Japan, Nazi Germany's Axis partner in the Far East.
Nine Notable Veterans of World War II
In 1939, Turkey signs 15-year treaty with Allies.
In 1943, the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers began in Russia during World War II. Delegates from the U.S.S.R., Great Britain, the U.S., and China met to discuss war aims and cooperation between the nations.
Headline: Chinese and Suluks revolt against Japanese in North Borneo
Local Chinese and native Suluks rise up against the Japanese occupation of North Borneo. The revolt, staged in the capital, Jesselton, resulted in the deaths of 40 Japanese soldiers.
The Japanese had begun scooping up islands in the Dutch East Indies in late 1941. Kuching, on the northern coast of Borneo, was taken in December; January of ’42 saw the fall of Brunei Bay and Jesselton, also in North Borneo. The British and Dutch forces on the islands were dealt swift and severe blows. Attempts by the Allies to hold on to other islands in the region—Malaya, Sumatra, and Java—began shortly thereafter, with British General Archibald Wavell commanding a unified force of British, Dutch, and Australian soldiers. It was a disastrous failure.
The treatment of Allied and civilian prisoners in the Japanese-controlled islands was horrendous, with hundreds dying of disease and starvation. The rebellion of Chinese settlers and native Suluks in the Borneo capital of Jesselton, although delivering a blow to the Japanese to the tune of 40 dead occupying soldiers, was dealt with quickly and brutally. The Japanese destroyed dozens of Suluk villages, rounded up and tortured thousands of civilians, and executed almost 200 without trial. In one extreme example of cruelty, several dozen Suluk women and children had their hands tied behind them and were hanged from their wrists from a pillar of a mosque. They were then shot down by machine-gun fire.
North Borneo would not be liberated until 1945, mostly the work of Australian forces. The next year, it would be made a colony of Britain. That region of Borneo controlled by the Dutch was given sovereignty in 1949 after a rebellion by Indonesian forces.
In 1951, President Truman singed an act officially ending the state of war with Germany.
No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: "Jailhouse Rock," Elvis Presley.
In 1959, Patty Duke, at the age of 12, made her Broadway debut in "The Miracle Worker." The play lasted for 700 performances.
In 1960, Martin Luther King and 52 others arrested at 'whites only' restaurant in Atlanta.
The United States began a limited embargo against Cuba covering all commodities except medical supplies and certain food products.
In 1967, Mariner 5 flies by Venus.
In 1968, Golden Gate Bridge charges tolls only for southbound cars.
In 1977, the body of West German industrialist Hanns Martin Schleyer, who had been kidnapped by left-wing extremists, was found in Mulhouse, France.
The supersonic Concorde made its first landing in New York City.
In 1982, Carmaker John DeLorean was arrested in Los Angeles and charged in a $24 million cocaine scheme aimed at salvaging his bankrupt sports car company. He was tried and acquitted.
In 1983, the Senate passed a bill making Martin Luther King's birthday a public holiday.
In 1987, the stock market crashed as the Dow Jones industrial Average plunged 508 points, or 22.6% in value.
In 1989, the Senate rejected a proposed constitutional amendment barring desecration of the American flag.
Camilo Jose Cela of Spain received the Nobel Prize for literature.
In 1990, Soviet President Gorbachev won parliamentary approval for a plan to switch from old-style communist central planning to a market economy.
In 1993, a U.N. oil-and-arms embargo against Haiti was reinstated in an effort to return the exiled Jean-Bertrand Aristide as president of Haiti.
In 1994, 22 people were killed as a terrorist bomb shattered a bus in the heart of Tel Aviv's shopping district. Entertainer and American patriot Martha Raye died in Los Angeles at age 78.
In 1997, On stage at the Grand Ole Opry, Vince Gill honors his late friend and influence, John Denver. Gill plays "Take Me Home, Country Roads," and invites the audience to sing along.
In 1998, Israel suspended negotiations with the Palestinians on issues other than security after a bloody attack at an Israeli bus stop.
Government lawyers opened their antitrust case against Microsoft Corp.
in Miami, the first class-action lawsuit brought by smokers against the tobacco industry went to trial. Jurors later found the nation's largest cigarette makers and industry groups had produced a defective and deadly product.
Former heavyweight champion, Mike Tyson, got his boxing license back after he had lost it for biting Evander Holyfield's ear during a fight.
In 2000, the Del McCoury Band is named entertainer of the year for the fourth consecutive year at the international Bluegrass Music Association Awards in Louisville, Kentucky.
independent counsel Robert Ray said in his final report about the White House travel office scandal dubbed Travelgate that first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton gave factually false sworn testimony. But, he said, there was not enough evidence to bring criminal charges.
In 2001, U.S. special forces began operations on the ground in Afghanistan, opening a significant new phase of the assault against the Taliban and al-Qaida.
In 2002, after four days of inactivity, the Washington area sniper reappeared and seriously wounded a man in a restaurant parking lot, triggering a massive response from police forces already on high alert.
In York, Pa., former mayor Charlie Robertson was acquitted and two other men were convicted in the shotgun slaying of Lillie Belle Allen, a young black woman, during race riots that tore the city apart in 1969.
In 2004, a second teenager was charged with plotting a mass murder at Marshfield High School in Massachusetts to emulate the 1999 Columbine massacre.
In 2005, gathering strength at a fierce pace, Hurricane Wilma
grew into one of the most powerful Atlantic hurricanes ever recorded, a Category 5 monster packing 175 mph wind that forecasters warned was "extremely dangerous."
A defiant Saddam Hussein pleaded innocent to charges of premeditated murder and torture as his trial opened under heavy security in the former headquarters of his Baath Party in Baghdad.
Kidnapped boy found in Las Vegas
LAS VEGAS, Oct. 19 (UPI) --
A 6-year-old Las Vegas boy believed to have been kidnapped by drug dealers has been found alive at a bus stop in the city, authorities say.
Las Vegas police say Cole Puffinburger, 6, the subject of a nationwide "amber alert" missing child search, was found just before 11 p.m. Saturday after a four-day investigation, KVVU-TV, Las Vegas, reported. His condition was not released.
Cole's grandfather, Clemons Tinnemeyer, 51, is in custody in California. Police officials said Tinnemeyer's alleged debts to a Mexican drug gang may have been the motivation for the kidnapping, in which armed men disguised as police officers broke into the boy's home Wednesday, tied up his mother and stepfather and abducted him at gunpoint.
After Tinnemeyer was apprehended Friday in California, police canceled the amber alert for Cole. Las Vegas authorities told KVVU they were looking for a second "person of interest," Jesus Gastelum, described as a man in his 30s who may have ties to both the drug gang and Cole's family.
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In 2010, the Pentagon directed the military to accept openly gay recruits for the first time in the nation's history.