On This Day
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"The thing that's important for me to tell the American people is that these soldiers will not have died in vain," President Bush said during a joint appearance with the Japanese prime minister, Junichiro Koizumi. "This is a just cause."
Saturday Night Massacre Anniversary
This date in 1973, was the dramatic turning point in the historically significant Watergate Affair. During the swiftly moving events of Saturday, October 20, the White House announced at 8:24 P.M., (EDT) that President Richard M. Nixon had fired Archibald Cox, Special Watergate Prosecutor, and William D. Ruckelshaus, Deputy Attorney General. Attorney General Elliott L. Richardson resigned. Public and governmental response was was immediate and widespread for impeachment of the President and these demands were not quieted until President Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974.
Happy Birthday ......
In 1616, Thomas Bartholin born. The Danish physician and mathematician in 1652 became the first to describe fully the human lymphatic system.
In 1632, Sir Christopher Wren born. The English architect and astronomer designed and built over 50 churches in London, most notably St. Paul's Cathedral.
In 1812, Austin Flint, 19th century pioneer in US heart research.
In 1823, Thomas Hughes, British author (Tom Brown's School Days).
In 1874, Charles Ives, composer.
In 1884, Bela Lugosi, Hungarian actor in horror films, born as Bela Blasko. Best known for his appearance in the film "Dracula" he also played Igor in the film of "Son of Frankenstein."
In 1911, Will Rogers, Jr., actor, storyteller.
In 1918, Radio-TV personality Arlene Francis.
In 1925, Columnist Art Buchwald.
In 1931, Mickey Mantle: Baseball player who learned how to switch-hit from his father (a righty) and grandfather (a lefty), the moment he was big enough to swing a bat. A Yankees’ scout discovered Mantle’s talent for hitting homers from both the left and right side of the plate when Mantle was in high school. Almost immediately after his graduation, Mantle was signed to the Yankees’ minor league Class D team. Mantle quickly moved up to the Class C team and made an historic leap straight from Class C to the Majors. During his career, Mantle earned three “Most Valuable Player Awards” (1956, ’57, ’62), won seven World Championships and hit 536 career homeruns. Mantle also made his way into the Guinness Book of World Records for hitting a 565-foot homerun – the longest homerun ever measured. In 1995, Mantle died from cancer, but his legend will forever be a part of baseball.
On this day...
In 1600, Battle of Sekigahara, which established the Tokugawa clan as rulers of Japan (SHOGUN) until 1865 (basis of Clavell's novel).
In 1740, Maria Theresa becomes ruler of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia.
In 1774, Continental Congress prohibits entertainment in the colonies including horse racing and theatricals.
In 1803, the Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
In 1818, the United States and Britain agreed to establish the 49th parallel as the official boundary between the United States and Canada.
In 1820, Spain gives Florida to the United States.
In 1890, Sir Richard Burton, British scholar and explorer, died. So it goes. The first European to discover Lake Tanganyika in Africa, he also translated the "Arabian Nights" tales.
In 1906, Dr Lee DeForest gives a demonstration of his radio tube.
In 1910, a baseball with a cork center was used in a World Series game for the first time.
In 1922, Mussolini seizes power in Italy after march on Rome.
Army Lt. Harold R. Harris becomes the first American pilot to save himself by use of a parachute, bailing out over McCook Field, Ohio. Lt. Harris is the original member of the Caterpillar Club.
In 1930 "The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes" debuted on NBC radio.
In 1935, Mao Zedong and his Communist forces ended their "Long March" at Yan'an, in Shaanxi, northwest China, one year after beginning their epic flight from Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang armies in the southeast.
World At War
World War II, which had begun in Europe on September 1, 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, ended six years later to the day, September 1, 1945. The final concluding ceremony came the following day, September 2, 1945, with the signing of surrender papers by representatives of Japan, Nazi Germany's Axis partner in the Far East.
Nine Notable Veterans of World War II
THE GREAT BATTLES OF WORLD WAR IIIn 1939, Frank Capra's film triumph "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" opens in NY starring Jimmy Stewart.
Headline: HITLER MAKES PEACE PLEAS; ALLIES DECLINE
Adolf Hitler is bristling at the rejection of his peace offer to London and Paris, and Germany now vowing to fight the war to its bitter end in Western Europe.
In 1940, Mideast: Italians attack Anglo-U.S. oilfield in Persian Gulf.
In 1941, Japan's Mitsubishi Ki-46, the first truly high-performance reconnaissance aircraft, makes its first operation sortie over Malaysia.
Headline: STATE OF SIEGE IN MOSCOW
Residents of Moscow are in a state of panic as the Germans approach. Joseph Stalin has placed the city under a state of siege, despite the fact that the weather and mud are halting the German attack.
In 1942, Vichy, France: Laval tells French labor it must serve in Germany.
In 1943, Germany: Flying Fortresses smash vtial Luftwaffe factory in Dueren.
In 1944, U.S. troops landed on the eastern coast of Leyte Island in the Philippines, fulfilling a promise General MacArthur made when his forces retreated from the Japanese.
Moscow: Churchill and Stalin conclude agreement dividing Eastern Europe into zones of influence following war.
Headline: ALLIES, FIGHTING WAY INTO AACHEN, TAKE FIRST CITY IN GERMANY
The German city of Aachen fell to the Allies today, 10 days after the American First Army dispatched a "surrender or die" ultimatum to the Germans. They elected to fight. The first German city to be seized by the Allies is a mostly empty shell.
Headline: Natural gas explosions rock Cleveland
Two liquid gas tanks explode in Cleveland, Ohio, killing 130 people, on this day in 1944. It took all of the city’s firefighters to bring the resulting industrial fire under control.
At 2:30 p.m., laboratory workers at the East Ohio Gas Company spotted white vapor leaking from the large natural gas tank at the company plant near Lake Erie. The circular tank had a diameter of 57 feet and could hold 90 million cubic feet of the highly flammable gas. Ten minutes later, a massive and violent explosion rocked the entire area. Flames went as high as 2,500 feet in the air. Everything in a half-mile vicinity of the explosion was completely destroyed.
Shortly afterwards, a smaller tank also exploded. The resulting out-of-control fire necessitated the evacuation of 10,000 people from the surrounding area. Every firefighting unit in Cleveland converged on the East Ohio Gas site. It still took nearly an entire day to bring the fire under control. When the flames went out, rescue workers found that 130 people had been killed by the blast and nearly half of the bodies were so badly burned that they could not be identified. Two hundred and fifteen people were injured and required hospitalization.
The explosion had destroyed two entire factories, 79 homes in the surrounding area and more than 200 vehicles. The total bill for damages exceeded $10 million. The cause of the blast had to do with the contraction of the metal tanks: The gas was stored at temperatures below negative 250 degrees and the resulting contraction of the metal had caused a steel plate to rupture.
Newer and safer techniques for storing gas and building tanks were developed in the wake of this disaster.
Herbert (Clark) Hoover
(1874-1964) 31st president of the U.S. (1929-33)
Born in West Branch, Iowa, he became a mining engineer, and administered engineering projects on four continents (1895-1913), then headed Allied relief operations in England and Belgium. During World War I he was appointed U.S. national food administrator (1917-19) and instituted programs that furnished food to the Allies and famine-stricken areas of Europe. Appointed U.S. secretary of commerce (1921-27), he reorganized the department, creating divisions to regulate broadcasting and aviation. He oversaw commission s to build Bolder (later Hoover) Dam and the St. Lawrence Seaway. In 1928, as the republican presidential candidate, he soundly defeated Alfred E. Smith. His hopes for a "New Day" program were quickly overwhelmed by the Great Depression. As a believer in individual freedom, he vetoed bills to create a federal unemployment agency and to fund public-works projects, instead favoring private charity. In 1932 he finally allowed relief to farmers though the Reconstruction Finance Corp. He was overwhelmingly defeated in 1932 by Franklin Roosevelt. He continued to speak out against relief measures and criticized New Deal programs. After World War II he participated in famine-relief work in Europe and was appointed head of the Hoover Commission.
©2001 Encylopedia Brittanica, Inc.
In 1947, House Un-American Activities Committee begins investigations of Hollywood Communism.
In 1952, Mau Mau uprising in Kenya, East Africa against British rule begins, quickly suppressed.
In 1955, Ira Levin's "No Time for Sergeants" starts 796 performance run on Broadway.
In 1960, the trial started in London of Penguin Books, charged with contravening Britain's Obscene Publications Act by publishing D.H. Lawrence's novel "Lady Chatterley's Lover."
Elvis Presley film "G.I. Blues" premieres.
In 1964, Herbert Hoover, who served as 31st president of the United States 1929-33, died. So it goes.
In 1967, seven men were convicted in Meridian, MS, on charges of violating the civil rights of three civil rights workers. Of the men convicted, one was a Ku Klux Klan leader and another was a deputy sheriff.
In 1968, Jackie Kennedy married multi-millionaire Aristotle Onassis, ending nearly five years of widowhood. Also, Soviet Kosmos 248 and Kosmos 249 spacecraft carry out first co-orbital anti-satellite test.
In 1971, "Jesus Christ Superstar" opens at Mark Hellinger Theatre, NY.
In 1973, in Australia, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the Sydney Opera House.
President Nixon fired special Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox.
In 1976, more than 70 people were killed when the Norwegian tanker, Frosta, collided with the ferryboat, George Prince, on the Mississippi River.
In 1979, John F. Kennedy Library dedicated in Boston.
In 1982, Soccer disaster in Moscow during Soviet vs. Dutch crushes 340 fans; Affair hushed up for 7 years.
In 1984, World's largest aquarium at Monterey Bay, California opens for business.
In 1989, the Senate convicted U.S. District Judge Alcee L. Hastings of perjury and conspiracy and removed him from office. The conviction was overturned and Hastings was later elected to the House of Representatives.
Former President Reagan and his wife, Nancy, began a visit to Japan sponsored by a media conglomerate.
Sir Anthony Quayle, English actor best remembered for his roles in "Lawrence of Arabia," "Ice Cold in Alex" and "The Guns of Navarone," died of cancer.
In 1990, the rap group 2 Live Crew was acquitted in Miami of obscenity charges arising from a performance of selections from the album As Nasty As They Wanna Be.
In 1993, Attorney General, Janet Reno, warned the TV industry to limit the violence in their programs.
In 1994, the Pentagon announced that more than 100,000 U.S. troops were being taken off alert for possible movement to the Persian Gulf because the Iraqi threat to Kuwait had abated.
Actor Burt Lancaster died in Los Angeles at age 80. So it goes.
In 1995, Britain, France and the U.S. announced a treaty that banned atomic blasts in the South Pacific.
In 1998, Jordan's King Hussein joined Mideast peace talks in Maryland at the invitation of Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. President Clinton named John Podesta as his chief of staff, replacing Erskine Bowles.
In 1999, a year after nearly dying from pneumonia, Johnny Cash finds himself battling the condition again. Cash is listed in serious condition at Baptist Hospital in Nashville.
In 2000, a former U.S. Army sergeant pleaded guilty to joining in a terrorist plot against the United States, linking Saudi fugitive Osama bin Laden to the bombing of the U.S. embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.
In 2001, Anthrax scares continued across the world as reports of letters with white powder possibly containing anthrax -- nearly all false alarms so far - were found. Work resumed in Washington where an anthrax discovery had temporarily closed Congress.
In 2002, showing its displeasure with North Korea for restarting its nuclear program, the United States was reported to be considering cutting off vital fuel oil supplies to that country.
In 2003, a Soyuz spacecraft carrying a Russian, American and Spanish crew docked with the International Space Station, two days after blasting off from the Russian manned space facility in Kazakhstan.
Astronauts Michael Foale of the United States and Russian Alexander Kaleri are the eighth crew to have flown to the space station for long-term occupation since the inaugural crew arrived on November 2, 2000.
The London Mirror said that British Princess Diana claimed there was a plot to kill her in a car crash in a handwritten letter 10 months before she died in an auto accident.
In 2004, Margaret Hassan, chief of operations for the British-based CARE charity, was kidnapped on her way to work in Iraq by unknown armed militants. CARE suspended its work in Iraq soon after.
In 2011, Headline: GADHAFI, LIBYA'S LEADER FOR 42 YEARS, KILLED.
Moammar Gadhafi, who ruled Libya with a dictatorial grip for 42 years until he was ousted by rebels in a bloody civil war, was killed when revolutionary forces overwhelmed his hometown, Sirte, the last major bastion of resistance two months after the regime fell.
Thought for the day...
[This is the 10/20/2017 bulletin.]
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